Kharkiv (Ukrainian: Ха́рків, romanized: Chárkiv, pronounced [ˈxɑrkiu̯]), also known as Kharkov (Russian: Ха́рьков), is the second-largest city in Ukraine. In the northeast of the country, it is the largest city of the Slobozhanshchyna historical region. Kharkiv is the administrative center of Kharkiv Oblast and of the surrounding Kharkiv Raigon, though administratively it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raigon. Population: 1,439,036 (2017 est.).
The city was founded in 1654 and after a humble beginning as a small fortress grew to be a major center of Ukrainian industry, trade, and culture in the Russian Empire.
Presently, Kharkiv is a major cultural, scientific, educational, transport and industrial center of Ukraine, with numerous museums, theatres, and libraries.
Its industry specializes primarily in machinery and in electronics. There are hundreds of industrial companies in the city, including the Morozov Design Bureau and the Malyshev Tank Factory (leaders in world tank production from the 1930s to the 1980s); Khartron (aerospace and nuclear power plants automation electronics); the Turboatom (turbines for hydro-, thermal- and nuclear power plants), and Antonov (the multipurpose aircraft manufacturing plant).
The city has 13 national universities and numerous professional, technical and private higher education institutions, offering its students a wide range of disciplines. Kharkiv National University of Radioelectronics (12,000 students), Kharkiv National University (12,000 students), National Technical University "KhPI" (20,000 students), Kharkiv National Aerospace University "KhAI", Kharkiv National University of Economics, Kharkiv National University of Pharmacy, Kharkiv National Medical University are the leading universities in Ukraine.
The city has a high concentration of research institutions, which are independent or loosely connected with the universities. Among them are three national science centres: Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Institute of Meteorology, Institute for Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine and 20 national research institutions of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine, such as the B Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine, State Scientific Institution "Institute for Single Crystals", Usikov Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics (IRE), Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA), and others. A total number of 26,000 scientists are working in research and development.
A number of world-renowned scientific schools appeared in Kharkiv, such as the theoretical physics school and the mathematical school. There is the Kharkiv Scientists House in the city, which was built by A. N. Beketov, the architect in Kharkiv in 1900. All the scientists like to meet and discuss various scientific topics at the Kharkiv Scientists House in Kharkiv.
There is the Kharkiv History Museum named after M. F. Sumtsov in the city.
The Natural History Museum at V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University was founded in Kharkiv on April 2, 1807. The museum is visited by 40000 visitors every year.
The V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University History Museum was established in Kharkiv in 1972.
The V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University Archeology Museum was founded in Kharkiv on March 20, 1998.
The National Technical University "Kharkiv Polytechnical Institute" Museum was created in Kharkiv on December 29, 1972.
The National Aerospace University "Kharkiv Aviation Institute" Museum was founded on May 29, 1992.
The "National University of Pharmacy" Museum was founded in Kharkiv on September 15, 2010.
There are around 147 museums in the Kharkiv's region.
The Kharkiv Maritime Museum - a museum dedicated to the history of shipbuilding and navigation.
The Kharkiv Puppet Museum is the oldest museum of dolls in Ukraine.
Memorial museum-apartment of the family Grizodubov.
Club-Museum of Claudia Shulzhenko.
The Museum of "First Aid".
The Museum of Urban Transport.
Kharkiv has rather sunny, warm summers which, however, are relatively mild compared to temperatures in South European regions, due to the region's lower elevation, proximity to the Black Sea, and the city's latitude.
Kharkiv has relatively long and cold winters.
The average rainfall totals 513 mm (20 in) per year, with the most in June and July.